Volume 2 - 2022 -

1. The endophytic fungi of Aquilaria sinensis from southern China

Authors: Du TY, Karunarathna SC, Hyde KD, Mapook A, Wariss HM, Aluthwattha ST, Wang YH, Mortimer PE, Xu JC and Tibpromma S

Recieved: 22 November 2021, Accepted: 24 January 2022, Published: 28 January 2022

Agarwood, a dark resin heartwood, is known as one of the most expensive natural products on the planet. In China, agarwood is mainly produced by Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Spreng. (Thymelaeaceae). Fungal inoculation is the primary mechanism to artificially induce agarwood production. In this study, endophytic fungi were collected and isolated from the branches of three samples distributed over three agarwood plantations originating from the same maternal plant. Through whole chloroplast genome analyses, it was confirmed that the three agarwood-producing trees from the three plantations belong to A. sinensis. Fungi isolated from A. sinensis samples belonged to five genera viz. Annulohypoxylon, Crassiparies, Diaporthe, Fusarium, and Lasiodiplodia that are common in all three plantations, while Fusarium was the dominant genus in all three plantations. Interestingly, even though the quality of agarwood from the three different plantations (A. sinensis GDA1, GDA2 and GDA3) are the same, A. sinensis GDA1 contained the least number of endophytic fungal strains when compared with A. sinensis GDA2 and GDA3. To determine whether there is a direct relationship between the diversity of fungal community and the quality of agarwood, further research is required.

Keywords: Agarwood – Fusarium – Guangdong Province – Thymelaeaceae


2. Endophytic fungi of agarwood and their chemical compounds: a review

Authors: Zhang SY, Tibpromma S, Karunarathna SC, Ye S, Mapook A, Wang YH, Xu JC

Recieved: 15 February 2022, Accepted: 26 April 2022, Published: 09 May 2022

Agarwood, a precious natural product, can be defined as fragrant dark resinous heartwood of diseased timber of Aquilaria and Gyrinops. Agarwood has been used for thousands of years in several countries as incense, perfumes, and multifunctional pharmaceutical product. The main compounds in agarwood include sesquiterpenes, 2-(2-phenylethyl)-4H-chromen-4-one and its derivatives (PeCs), aromatics, triterpenes and five other categories. Natural agarwood resin production is inefficient and and low yield; thus, it is difficult to meet global demand. Different methods have been implemented to stimulate biological agarwood induction, and the use of endophytic fungi is one of the methods. In this review, we summarize the endophytic fungi and their chemical compounds reported in agarwood.

Keywords: Aquilaria – chemical constitutes – fungal endophytes – Gyrinops – natural product


3. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the growth of Colletotrichum spp. and Nigrospora sp.

Authors: Dragoni-Rosado JJ, González-Mederos A, Sambolín-Pérez C

Recieved: 16 May 2022, Accepted: 26 July 2022, Published: 22 August 2022

The widespread use of agrochemicals to control phytopathogen fungi may harm crop, environment, and human health. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are proposed as an alternative antifungal agent against phytopathogenic fungi. However, the effects of silver nanoparticles in different concentrations need to be more evaluated. In this study, five environmental endophytic fungi from banana leaves were isolated and classified by molecular analysis. These fungi were cultivated and purified in two culture media (PDA and SDA) using three concentrations (16, 50, and 100 ppm) of AgNPs - 15 nm. Results showed that AgNPs are good antifungal agents for some fungal species. The growth of Colletotrichum isolate 3, Colletotrichum isolate 4, and Nigrospora isolate was reduced when exposed to 50 and 100 ppm of AgNPs. Furthermore, the growth of Colletotrichum isolate 1 and Colletotrichum isolate 2 was not affected by the concentrations used in this experiment. The effect of AgNPs depends on the fungal species and the concentration of the nanoparticles. This research demonstrated that the use of AgNPs effectively controls the growth of some fungal species. However, as observed in our results, these particles are not specific. For these reasons, more comprehensive analysis of microbial communities’ behavior is needed before recommending the use of AgNPs as an antifungal agent.

Keywords: agriculture – antifungal – environment – nanotechnology


About Fungal Biotec

Fungal Biotec publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, and other research which are relevant to fungal biotechnology. The official journal language is English.

All manuscripts will undergo peer review before acceptance. Fungal Biotec will publish each manuscript as quickly as possible following acceptance by the editors.

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