Volume 1 - 2021 - special issue

1. Fomes (Polyporales, Basidiomycota): medicinal, economic and ecological importance

Authors: Wang H and Zhao CL

Recieved: 01 June 2021, Accepted: 14 September 2021, Published: 20 September 2021

Fomes have attracted much attention because of their important ecological, economic and medical values. In forest ecosystems, Fomes play a core role in promoting the circulation of nutrients and the flow of energy. In the application of modern medicine and biotechnology, the effective substances extracted from Fomes also have a great economic value. The aims of this review are to (1) review the historical taxonomy of Fomes, (2) briefly describe important species of Fomes together with their distribution, and (3) discuss the economic value of Fomes.

Keywords: Health benefits – Polyporaceae – Taxonomy – Wood-rotting fungi


2. Hericium erinaceus - A Rich Source of Diverse Bioactive Metabolites

Authors: Deshmukh SK, Sridhar KR, and Gupta

Recieved: 15 July 2021, Accepted: 22 September 2021, Published: 30 September 2021

Hericium erinaceus (commonly known as lion’s mane mushroom) is an edible mushroom used in traditional Chinese medicine. It is a prolific producer of diverse bioactive metabolites with neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties (e.g. β glucan polysaccharides, hericenones, erinacine terpenoids, isoindolinones, sterols, and myconutrients). Because of its anti inflammatory properties and promotion of nerve growth factor (NGF) gene expression and neurite (axon or dendrite) outgrowth, H. erinaceus is used for the treatment of Alzheimer's as well as Parkinson's diseases. This review provides a comprehensive account of the bioactive compounds from H. erinaceus (both from the fruit bodies and mycelia) and their biological activities such as neuroprotective functions, cytotoxicity, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and herbicidal activities.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease – anticancer agents – antidiabetic – anti inflammatory – antimicrobial – erinacine terpenoids – herbicidal – hericenone – neurite outgrowth – neuroprotection – Parkinson’s disease


3. Biochemical profile of two ethnically edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms of southwest India

Authors: Greeshma AA, Anu-Appaiah KA, Pavithra M and Sridhar KR

Recieved: 23 July 2021, Accepted: 26 September 2021, Published: 11 October 2021

Edible mushrooms constitute the best natural source of bioactive compounds as well as antioxidants. Two edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms of the Western Ghats of India (Amanita sp. and Astraeus hygrometricus) assessed for the biochemical profile. Aqueous extracts of dried powders of uncooked and cooked fruit bodies of mushrooms were evaluated for their soluble sugars and organic acids, while the methanol extract was used to detect polyphenols. Profiles of soluble sugars, organic acids, and polyphenols differed between the mushrooms as well as uncooked and cooked samples. Uncooked samples of both mushrooms possess higher quantities of sugars, organic acids, and polyphenols. Fructose is a common sugar in uncooked and cooked mushrooms, as well as tartaric acid, myricetin, and ethyl catechol. Trehalose was detectable only in Amanita, which has several industrial applications. Ascorbic acid found in both mushrooms and it is useful as a nutraceutical. Myricetin found in substantial quantities in both mushrooms, which serve as a nutraceutical owing to its antioxidant potential. The p-coumaric acid found in uncooked samples of both mushrooms. The novelty of these uncooked and cooked mushrooms in nutrition and bioactive potential will pave the way to adapt them for the human diet as well as in the production of health-promoting functional foods.

Keywords: Amanita – Astraeus – ectomycorrhizae – organic acids – polyphenols – sugars


4. A mini review on the potential pharmacological properties, cultivation, and market value of edible Lentinus mushrooms (Polyporaceae)

Authors: Phonemany M, Raghoonundon B, Luangharn T, Tang SM, Hyde KD and Thongklang N

Recieved: 23 July 2021, Accepted: 26 September 2021, Published: 19 October 2021

Lentinus is a saprobic genus consisting of many edible species. Some species are widely consumed and important for the commercial market. Lentinus species are mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, and few species like growing in temperate regions. According to our literature reviews, some Lentinus species have high nutrient value, medicinal properties, biotechnological, and environmental applications due to their reported bioactivities. Lentinus can also be considered as an important part for the economy as they are edible. In this short review, potential pharmacological properties, cultivation methods and economical value of Lentinus species are provided.

Keywords: economic – edible mushrooms – fungus – lentoid – medicinal mushrooms.


5. Nutritional and medicinal benefits of Oyster (Pleurotus) mushrooms: a review

Authors: Galappaththi MCA, Dauner L, Madawala S, and Karunarathna SC

Recieved: 02 August 2021, Accepted: 03 November 2021, Published: 30 November 2021

Pleurotus mushrooms are the third largest commercially produced and the second most important cultivated mushroom in the world, consisting of about 539 species. This comprises 25% of total world production of cultivated mushrooms. Pleurotus mushrooms possess various nutritional and medicinal values. The fruitbodies of Pleurotus are rich in unique flavor and nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibers. Bioactive compounds such as lectin, proteoglycans, laccase, lovastatin, phenols and uridine present in Pleurotus have shown some anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, genoprotective, anti-oxidant, immuno-modulatory, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, anti-mitogenic, anti-hypertensive and anti-hypercholesterolemic properties. The major nutritional and medicinal benefits of important Pleurotus species are discussed in the present review.

Keywords: Amino acids – bioactive compounds – health benefits – medicinal properties – minerals.


6. Nutritional content, nutraceutical properties, cultivation methods and economical importance of Lentinula: a review

Authors: Raghoonundon B, Gonkhom D, Phonemany M, Luangharn T and Thongklang N

Recieved: 06 August 2021, Accepted: 28 November 2021, Published: 02 December 2021

Lentinula is a wood-inhabiting agaric mushroom genus in Omphalotaceae. The genus comprises eight species, several of which are edible and highly prized. Lentinula edodes, commonly known as Shiitake, is one of the most cultivated species worldwide and considered as a traditional delicacy in Southeast Asia. With proven medicinal properties, the market value of L. edodes is expected to reach $ 447.7 million in 5 years’ time. In this paper, we review the nutritional content, nutraceutical properties, cultivation methods, and economic importance of Lentinula.

Keywords: edible mushrooms – Lentinula – market value– medicinal mushrooms.


7. Cultivation and identification of blazeispirols of Agaricus campestroides and A. flocculosipes

Authors: Chuankid B, Schrey H, Stadler M, Thongklang N, Hyde KD

Recieved: 19 August 2021, Accepted: 08 December 2021, Published: 23 December 2021

The genus Agaricus contains many edible and medicinal mushrooms; and some of them are used for commercial purposes. Most Agaricus species have been described from temperate geographic areas, but their occurrence in the tropics is still underexplored. The present study describes the successful cultivation of two wild strains from Thailand, A. flocculopsipes and A. campestroides for the first time. The optimal conditions for mycelial growth have been evaluated for both strains, formation of basidiomata on compost could only be observed for A. campestroides. In the present study, mycelial growth and mushroom production conditions were optimized. The temperature range of 25–30 °C with 80–90% humidity was assessed as preferred conditions for primordia and basidiomata formation in a compost rice straw medium with sandy-soil casing layer. Blazeispirols (blazeispirol A and D), a family of triterpenoids that is known to act as selective agonists of Liver X receptor alpha with beneficial effects in vivo in a murine model, were detected in crude extracts from submerged cultures of A. campestroides and A. flocculosipes.

Keywords: Bioactive compounds – edible mushroom – mushroom farming – Thailand


8. Hericium: A review of the cultivation, health-enhancing applications, economic importance, industrial, and pharmaceutical applications

Authors: Gonkhom D, Luangharn T, Raghoonundon B, Hyde KD, Stadler M, Thongklang N

Recieved: 12 August 2021, Accepted: 20 November 2021, Published: 24 December 2021

Hericium is a genus of edible mushroom with proven medicinal efficacy. The mycelium and basidiomata contain many nutrients and bioactive compounds with therapeutic uses. Recent and emerging evidence has shown that Hericium is helpful to various diseases with medicinal properties, such as anti oxidant, anti cancer, anti diabetic, anti hyperglycemic, hypolipidemic properties, anti inflammatory, anti microbial, anti viral, and hepatoprotective. Over the past decade, many studies have been done on Hericium cultivation to produce enough basidiomata for culinary and medical purposes, due to its rarity in natural habitat. The purpose of this review is to provide the cultivation methods including indoor outdoor cultivations and submerged culture methods, health enhancing applications, economic importance, and industrial applications of Hericium mushroom.

Keywords: cultivation – economical – industrial applications – medicinal mushroom


About Fungal Biotec

Fungal Biotec publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, and other research which are relevant to fungal biotechnology. The official journal language is English.

All manuscripts will undergo peer review before acceptance. Fungal Biotec will publish each manuscript as quickly as possible following acceptance by the editors.

Fungal Biotec